ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL TYPES
Nomadic economy has been organically integrated into the landscape of the steppe. The steppe herbage was subjected to a uniform load, optimal in composition and proportions of the herd. Soft, succulent grasses were eaten by cows, and other grasses were eaten by fussy sheep and horses. And even the thorns were given attention by the camels grazing after them. And overgrazing of pastures was not allowed by constant movement of the herd.
Ethnic waves flooded Crimea with cultures, languages, and beliefs. Spread over plains of steppes, valleys of mountains, harbors of coasts, they were able to transform only the appearance of the Crimea. The pillars of development of the Peninsula-economic and cultural types-remained the same. The ethnic groups that inhabited the Peninsula in ancient and medieval times were pastoralists-nomads in the Steppe Crimea and sedentary farmers in the Mountains. Crimean Tatars also differed in economic and cultural types. Steppe herding cattle, in obedience to age-old traditions. Herds moved across seasonal pastures like a giant pendulum. In summer - to the North of the Crimea in the direction of the wet steppes. With cold weather, they returned to the Crimea to winter pastures free of snow. In the spring, after the Okot and tonsure, the cattle were again driven out of the Peninsula.
A family of nomads lived in the Crimea, small villages, scattered in the depressions of the relief. There was available ground water and protection from the wind. Tribal affiliation is reflected in the names of settlements: Alchin, Birch, Siobhan. On their outskirts, ash mounds — Kul-Oba-were piled up. The nomad was the first to notice the silhouette of his native mound when returning home. The opening view of Kul-Oba told the stranger about the well-being of the house, warmed just by the view. Subsequently, the ash mounds were called Jurt — homeland.
The Crimean steppe in the South is bordered by the chain of Mountain Crimea. The economic and cultural type of settled agriculture has taken quite special forms here. The closed space of mountain valleys was "expanded" by their vertical development. High-rise tiers in accordance with their natural properties had a clearly defined specialization.
Agriculture was mainly tied to river terraces. The moistened lower terraces were occupied mainly by Apple orchards, while the upper terraces were occupied by vineyards and field crops. High productivity of valley agriculture was provided by generous irrigation.
The slopes of the valleys were occupied by a unique system of tea gardens. They were created in the forest by grafting wild trees with fruit culture. Tea did not require much care, as it had a stable natural basis. In the young gardens, vegetables were grown on treated soils, and the adult garden was an additional hay field.
The agriculture in the mountain plateau-mountain pasture used for grazing. All summer long the cattle walked on the plateau, descending into the valley only from the cold. Here, hay stored in the summer was added to the bottom feed.
Isolated by a mountain range, the southern Coastal region of the dry subtropics was in the zone of Mediterranean cultural influence. The economy of the South bankers cultivated the best grapes in the Crimea, garden crops of figs, olives, persimmons, pomegranates, field — flax, and later — tobacco. For herding cattle was characterized by the maintenance of breeds of domestic animals, the great advantage of which was the ability to quickly climb steep mountain trails and rocks. And the resident of the South-Bank settlement surrounded by solid mountains had a comfortable flat surface— the roof of his own house, where he often spent his free time.