Art - Devlet Saray Museum
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Crimean Tatar decorative art differs and fascinates with its beauty, expressiveness and restraint. As the art critic M. ya. Ginzburg noted,"...the greatest beauty, variety and richness of drawing, the most delicate range of colors reaches the artistic Tatar industry in weaving and embroidery production, in a variety of fabrics, amazingly colorful costumes, chadras and marams, belts...".
The Crimean Tatars ' textile consists of 4 main types. "Atma" - the main type of textile ("atmak" from the verb - "throw", "throw". Ondan solga atmak-throw from right to left). The second type - " ornegi sepme Atma "was called in the steppe zone and foothill areas," ornegi sachma"in mountain and South — Bank areas ("sepme"," sachma " - from the verbs sow, scatter, scatter), where the pattern, ornament are scattered, scattered on the surface of the fabric. Woven by the method of "Tahtali Atma"in mountainous and southern coastal areas or "katerlengen Tahtali" in the steppe zone, the fabric is characterized by relief pattern and decorative. It was used for home decoration both for holidays, weddings, and in everyday life. It was also used for making head coverings "marama" and "sherbenti". The fabric had a high strength and practicality, so it is often used at home as aprons "of ugluk" or "pestemal", scarves-knots "bahcha", covers of "arty", cloth "saprobes" or "kjonaas" towels "usbus", swipe "egybt" and more. Double sided ornamental textile "chabris Atma" is more often used in the South coast and mountainous areas of the Crimea.
For ornamental textiles, linen "keten", cotton "Pamuk-Basma" and, of course, silk threads "yipek"were used. In the Khan's period, threads for embroidery and textiles were made in the regions of Old Crimea and Bakhchisaray. From inorganic and vegetable materials, craftsmen made paints that were used to dye fabrics. To get the brown color "K'averenk" used green walnut shell, yellow color "Sary" was obtained from the husk of onions, and the roots of acacia and barberry gave various shades from light yellow "achyk Sary" to orange "portakal", in a beautiful purple "merekep" and strict black" K'ara " colors were colored by means of a pomegranate peel.
The Crimean Tatar ornament is characterized by peculiar geometric directions on the surface of the fabric-horizontally, vertically, obliquely. The ornaments made by the steppe Crimean Tatars are dominated by horizontal lines. Colors at an angle are more often used in foothill areas. Ornaments of mountain masters differ in vertical coloring. Most of the traditional ornaments were lovingly passed down from generation to generation. Details of a complex creative drawing reflected the world that surrounded the skilled craftswoman. The pattern was based on household items or the surrounding natural world: flowers, all kinds of amazing birds and animals, unique outlines of rocks and gorges. Poetic natures, carried away in the process of creativity, went into the world of dreams, fantasies, fairy tales and legends. And then the patterns made by skilled fingers of craftsmen reflected all the beauty of their native nature: a falling waterfall, a running mountain stream, stars scattered across the bottomless sky.
Unique and colorful embroidery of the Crimean Tatars. It differs in ornaments and type of sewing. Researcher P. Ya. Chepurina identified 10 types of embroidery of Crimean Tatars: "Tatar-ishleme", "ESAB-ishleme", "telly", "myklama", "bukme", "kasnak", applique sewing, "pool", "sewing with beads and pearls", "embroidery with precious stones".
Satin stitch "Tatar-Islami" performed bilateral sewing using silk, cotton, gold and silver threads. Satin stitch embroidered "usbus", "Uruguay", etc. Lattice double-sided sewing "ESAB ishlem" was more often used by embroiderers of the South Bank. This type is also called Turkish embroidery. Other double-sided sewing "telly" was used for embroidery of geometric ornaments. One-sided embroidery "michilla" is performed on a dense fabric with gold or silver threads. It was used to decorate festive clothing, headdresses-FEZs, boxes, tobacco pouches, etc. Embroidery "bukme" is performed with gilded and silvered laces, which are superimposed and attached to the finished drawing. It is used to decorate jackets, garters for socks, pouches, etc. One-sided sewing "kasnak" is performed on a special frame of a round shape "kasnak" with a needle or a hook in a loop. A kind of "applicative sewing", it has been used for the manufacture of carpets, rugs to cushions, etc. To make the item more elegant, this technology was supplemented with "pool" sewing — round metal sequins made of gold and silver were sewn to the item. "Pool" also serves as an addition to" myklama "and" bukme", in addition, it is also used for the manufacture of products made of fine fabric, for example, a gas blanket for the bride"pulla burumchyk". For expensive jewelry, embroidered in gold thread products used precious stones and pearls, in other cases they are embroidered with beads.
Unfortunately, after the deportation of the Crimean Tatar people, the decorative art of the Crimean Tatars was on the verge of extinction. Thanks to the collections preserved in the Bakhchisaray Palace-Museum, archival and library sources, it was possible to study and revive decorative art. Today, some enthusiasts are making attempts to revive traditional carpet weaving and embroidery. Their first experiments are so successful that their products are already exhibited at various exhibitions and are in demand.
The toponyms Konrat, Kirei, Naiman, Baryn, Alchin, like the tramp of thousands of hooves, announce the approach of a formidable Horde. Scattered across the Crimean plains, they will not allow the Crimean Tatars to forget their Turkic ancestors. Goth havr, Shelen, Raven, Iranian Zamana, donga, Style, mysterious, lost in the depth of centuries, perhaps, the Taurian Chigenitra, Urgenda, Baganda expose the non-Turkic roots of the people.
Crimean toponymy is not a Museum exhibit or an ethnographic decoration. It is a living carrier of the cultural and ethnic heritage of Crimea, a link between the past and the present. It does not accept revisions, arbitrary changes that followed immediately after the deportation of the indigenous people. Deprived of their homeland, the Crimean Tatars kept the toponymy of Crimea in their hearts, not dividing it into "their" and "someone else's". And you can see how carefully they graft to the Crimean land withered, but not lost vitality shoots that are still able to grow into a blooming garden...