HISTORY GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT CRIMEAN TATARS
The basis of the anthropological type of the Crimean Tatars are representatives of the Caucasian race; some groups have small Mongoloid admixtures. The Crimean Tatar language belongs to the Kypchak-Polovtsian subgroup of the Kypchak group and belongs to the Turkic languages. The main dialects are Northern (steppe), middle (mountain), and southern (coastal). Before 1928, the script was based on the Arabic alphabet, since 1928 — on the Latin alphabet, and since 1938 — on the Cyrillic alphabet. The faithful Crimean Tatars are Sunni Muslims.
The ethnic core of the people was formed in the IV—XVI centuries as a result of the synthesis (connection, merger) of non-Turkic and Turkic tribes. This core is localized in the mountainous and foothill Crimea. According to researchers, "by the end of the X century, the centuries-old assimilation process of the formation of the gornokrymsky people was completed. It has absorbed the Alanian, Gothic, romaic and Bulgar components" (AI Aibabin). In the XI-XVI centuries. Kipchak and other Turkic tribes are joining the ethnic process in Crimea. The main means of consolidation was to spread the Turkic language and Islam among the multiethnic population of the medieval Crimea, especially intensified in the period of the Crimean khanate (XV—XVIII centuries). Turkic-speaking Muslim population of the Peninsula had self - "kirimli" (Crimeans). The currently used ethnonym "Crimean Tatars" appeared as a name given by neighboring peoples. It was used in Russia and European countries, and only after the deportation from the middle of the XX century. it became actively used by the people themselves. Evidence of the complex ethnic history of the Crimean Tatars are sub-ethnic groups: the steppes, highlanders and South bankers. Differences in physical type, economic activity, traditional culture, and dialect features of the language were quite clearly maintained by these groups until the deportation of the people in 1944.
The main occupations of the Crimean Tatars in the mountain-forest zone of the Peninsula were agriculture (field farming, gardening, viticulture, horticulture, tobacco farming, beekeeping) and pasture (on yayly) cattle breeding, in the steppe part-grain farming and cattle breeding. Most of the centers of craft production were concentrated in the cities and villages of the mountain forest zone. The most famous products of Crimean Tatar artisans were products made of Morocco leather, kilims-carpets, horse harnesses and saddles, weapons, copper dishes, jewelry.
The culture of the Crimean Tatars is rich and diverse. Its roots go mainly to Turkic and non-Turkic ancestors, but it was also influenced by neighboring peoples through trade, cultural and religious contacts.
The spiritual culture of the Crimean Tatars is based on Islam, which was established in the Crimea during the XIII—XV centuries. In accordance with the Muslim canons, the main rites are performed: nikyah (marriage), genaze (funeral), sunnet (circumcision). The main Islamic holidays are Oraza Bayram (celebrated at the end of the Holy month of Ramadan, the great lent of the faithful) and Eid al-Adha (the feast of sacrifice).
Pre-Muslim elements are also organically intertwined in the Crimean Tatar culture. Especially stable was the pagan Pantheon with the Supreme deity Tengri, inherited from the Turkic ancestors of the people. Among the steppe Crimean Tatars, the term Tengri is used as the second name of the God Alla, and the blue color - the symbol of the Supreme deity of the Turks - is the color of the national flag of the Crimean Tatars. Favorite pre-Muslim holidays-Navrez (new year, celebrated on the day of the spring equinox-March 22), Khydyrlez (celebrated in the 5-6 days of the first week of may and is dedicated to the completion of spring sowing and driving livestock to summer pastures), derviza (the end of the economic year, celebrated on the day of the autumn equinox — September 22).
The Crimean Tatars lost their statehood at the end of the XVIII century. As part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet state, an ethnic group is subjected to national and cultural oppression and physical displacement from its historical homeland. The culmination of this policy is the total deportation of the Crimean Tatar people in 1944. Women, old people, and children were loaded into freight cars and sent to the Urals, the Volga region, Siberia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and other regions of the USSR. Later, soldiers and officers who were demobilized from the front were deported to them.
Until 1956, the people lived in special settlements under a curfew. During the deportation and the first years of exile, the Crimean Tatar people, according to the Crimean Tatar national movement, lost 46.2% of the total number.
But even after the curfew is lifted, the Crimean Tatar people are prohibited from returning to Crimea. Since the mid-1950s, a democratic National movement for returning to the historical Homeland has been formed. It was one of the most active and mass national movements in the Soviet Union.
In 1987-1989, Crimean Tatars held a series of demonstrations, rallies, strikes and other non-violent actions demanding that their national issue be resolved. Despite the obstacles created by the authorities, the mass self-return of the people to Crimea begins. It is accompanied by many problems of a political, legal, and socio-economic nature. Crimean Tatars are creating a system of national self — government bodies in Crimea, headed by the national Congress — Kurultai and a representative body-the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar people.
The beginning of the national and cultural rise of the Crimean Tatars allows us to hope for a successful outcome of the repatriation process and the restoration of the rights of the indigenous people.